"Cactus" bucks are bucks that are in velvet and have points sticking out all over their head. When a buck has very small testes, or has no testes at all, known as cryptorchidism — meaning they haven’t descended from the body cavity and thus do not function — you get cactus bucks. Since they never shed, each spring new antlers develop on top of the old ones. Further north these extra antler tines may freeze in winter and break off, but if the weather isn’t too bad, antlers tines grow over old antlers tines and you get these weird looking bucks. The older they get, the odder the growths become.
Mercury embolism to the lung.
A 21 year old dental assistant attempted suicide by injecting elemental mercury intravenously. She presented to the emergency room with trouble breathing & bloody sputum. CXR showed that the mercury was distributed in the lungs in a vascular pattern.
The patient was discharged after one week, and at follow-up at 10 months, she was healthy, with none of the effects of mercury poisoning.
1. Cancer cells don’t age.
Normal cells go through senescence through shortening of telomeres with every cell division. Cancer cells however have telomerase that will sustain the telomere length of the chromosomes rendering the cell virtually immortal.
2. Cancer cells have a way around apoptosis, their programmed cell death.
They overexpress antiapoptotic molecules and can multiply forever.
3. The Grim Reaper can’t recognize them.
The Natural killer cells, or the Grim Reaper; are supposed to cause death of the tumor cells. However, cancer cells remain undetected because they down regulate their MHC proteins or use decoy proteins to look innocent.
4. If recognized, the Grim Reaper can’t kill them.
Tumor cells block the death receptor pathway and directly interfere with the perforin/granzyme pathway. That is why, natural killer cells fail to kill them.
5. Cancer cells don’t need anything.
Cancer cells are self sufficient on growth factors. This means that they can continue to proliferate and divide independently, as opposed to normal cells that need external growth factors.
6. And if they do need something, they order it to come to them.
When cancer cells need of oxygen and nutrients, they stimulate angiogenesis; which is inducing growth of new blood vessels.
7. They have metabolic super powers.
The metabolism of malignant cells is usually more anaerobic than that of normal cells and is greatly accelerated. Malignant cells have the ability to withstand hypoxic conditions. They have increased glucose and amino acid uptake. In addition, they have high levels of hexokinase increasing their glucose utilization.
The Rules for Tug (for a family dog):
- The dog must drop the toy on cue.
- The dog’s teeth must not touch the person’s skin or clothes.
- The dog and human play tug only with dog toys.
If the dog doesn’t follow the rules, stop playing and ignore them for a few seconds. Here is the ASPCA’s guide to playing tug with your dog, with ideas for teaching your dog to drop the toy on cue. Here’s an easy guide to making your own tug toy out of felt (you can also cut up and use old/worn out clothing or blankets). Here’s a trickier, but sturdier tug toy.
Playing tug in this manner will teach your dog to control themselves even when they’re excited, to listen to you, and to keep their teeth to themselves. It is also great fun for a lot of dogs!